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Tehran, Iran

Disaster Risk Management Profile

Last Update, July 2006

1 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 1

Demographic, economic, social and cultural characteristics........................................... 1

Governance style............................................................................................................... 2

National hazardscape ....................................................................................................... 3

National disaster management structure and relevant legislation................................ 4

Tehran Disaster Management Organization................................................................... 6

National land use management system and relevant legislation................................... 7

Significance of the city to the Nation ............................................................................... 7

Geographical setting of the City....................................................................................... 8

2 INTER-CITY LINKAGES ................................................................................................... 9

Internal division of the City ............................................................................................. 9

Governance/management style ........................................................................................ 9

Formal arrangements..................................................................................................... 10

Relevant legislation/regulations..................................................................................... 10

3 LAND USE MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................ 11

Relevant legislation ........................................................................................................ 11

Responsible agents and their relationship .................................................................... 12

Effectiveness of current arrangements .......................................................................... 12

4 VULNERABILITY ISSUES ............................................................................................... 12

Hazards ........................................................................................................................... 13

At-risk groups ................................................................................................................. 13

At-risk locations.............................................................................................................. 14

City policies on vulnerability alleviation ....................................................................... 15

5 DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT ARRANGEMENTS .......................................................... 16

Functional arrangements ............................................................................................... 16

Risk Assessment ............................................................................................................. 17

Risk Communication ...................................................................................................... 17

6 DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT VISION......................................................................... 18

7 ISSUES ......................................................................................................................... 18

8 REFERENCES................................................................................................................ 19

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Page 1

Tehran, Iran

Disaster Risk Management Profile

1 Introduction

Demographic, economic, social and cultural characteristics1

Iran, or Persia, as it was known until 1935, is located in South West Asia.

Turkmenistan and the Caspian Sea, Afghanistan, Pakistan, the Persian Gulf,

the Gulf of Oman, Iraq and Turkey bound the 1,648,000 sq km large country.

Iran is one of the most arid regions of the world, and suffers frequent droughts,

floods and landslides. In addition, due to its position in the Alpine-Himalayan

mountain system, Iran is also subject to numerous and often severe

earthquakes.

The total population of Iran is 68,017,860 (July 2005 est.), making it also, one of

the most populous countries in the region. Persians make up over half of the

population, while the Azerbaijani account for at least 25%. Other ethnic

minorities include Kurds, Lors, Bakhtiaris, Baluchis, Arabs, Armenians,

Assyrians and Jews. In addition to the local population, Iran has over the past

1 UNDP country office, Iran’s facts

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two decades, hosted one of the largest refugee populations in the world. The

estimated number of these refugees, mostly from war-torn Afghanistan and

Iraq, has varied between two and four million.

Islam is the official religion; about 90% of Iranians are Muslims of the Shiite

sect. The remainder, mostly Kurds and Arabs, are Sunnis. The principal

language of the country is Persian (Farsi), which is written in Arabic script.

Other languages spoken include, Turkish, Kurdish, Armenian, and Arabic.

Only about 10% of the land in Iran is arable; agriculture contributes just over

20% to the gross national product and employs a third of the labor force. The

main food-producing areas are in the Caspian region and in the valleys of the

northwest. Of the variety of natural resources found in Iran, petroleum and

natural gas are by far the most important. Iran is the second largest OPEC oil

producer and is second in abundance of reservoirs of gas in the world. Besides

crude and refined petroleum, Iran’s chief exports are Petrochemical products,

textiles, fruits, nuts, hides, and iron and steel. Traditional handicrafts such as

carpet weaving and the manufacture of ceramics, silk, and jewelry are also

important to the economy.

Governance style

The present administrative structure of Iran is characterized by its strongly

centralized system of control. There are 30 ostans or administrative provinces,

further divided into 195 governorships, 5001 divisions, 496 cities and 1581

village-districts.

The constitution's basic feature is to ensure that the country follows an Islamic

path under the direction of "Velayat-e Faghih" (literally, Supreme Jurisprudence)

which consists of either a single leader or of 3 to 5 persons to be selected by an

elected Council of Islamic Experts.

The duties of the "Velayat-e Faghih" include selection of the six religious jurists

(the other six are constitutional experts appointed by the Majlis - Parliament) of

the Guardian Council, which has the task of vetting the laws passed by the

elected Majlis, the appointment of the Heads of the Judiciary and Armed

Forces, the members of the Expediency Council, the Supreme Council or

National Security, the High Council of Defense, and also endorses the

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appointment of the President, elected by popular vote.

Velayat-e Faghih delineates the general policies of the country after

consultation with the Expediency Council. He supervises the execution of the

policies of the system with a view to ensuring their proper administration. Most

importantly, the Velayat-e Faghih is the final arbiter for all disputes in legislation

and has the power to control and revoke all State appointments, including that

of the President of the country.

The Majlis has a membership of 290, each elected for a period of 4 years (the

latest election was in February 2004). The Government consists of the

President, and approximately 23 Ministers forming the Cabinet. The basic role

of the President is to lead the Executive branch of Government. He also

nominates the Ministers for endorsement by the Majlis. All laws passed by the

Majlis have to be vetted by the Guardian Council. In cases where the Majlis and

the Guardian Council cannot reach an agreement the issue will be referred to

the Expediency Council for final decision.

At the provincial level, administration calls for close cooperation between the

Governor, his district officials, the Imam Jome'h, the local clergy, and the

provincial representatives of the Government ministries in various technical

areas.

National hazardscape

During the last decade a number of natural disasters were reported including

four major earthquakes, a number of devastating floods and the worst drought

in the last thirty years.

The Islamic Republic of Iran is located in the area of the mountain belt of Alp-

Himalayas, which is the last and the youngest mountainous area in the world

subjected to constant transformation. The spreading of the Red Sea resulting in

the movement of the Arabian Plate towards Iran, the displacement of the Indian

Ocean bed in the Oman region towards the northeast, and the movement of

other lithosphere plates around Iran have caused disastrous earthquakes in the

country, with huge human and economic losses caused by the destruction of

cities like Ray (Tehran), Tabriz, Roodbar, Mangil, Bam and Tabas. In addition to

the direct impact of the earthquakes, other induced effects such as liquefaction

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and landslides also threaten the country. Droughts and flooding are additional

hazards of concern for the country, they have affected important groups of the

population as can be seen from the following summary table.

Top 10 Natural Disasters in Iran Islamic Rep

sorted by numbers of people killed and affected

Disaster Date Killed

Earthquake 1-Jun-1990 40,000

Earthquake 26-Dec-2003 26,796

Earthquake 16-Sep-1978 25,000

Earthquake Sep-1962 12,000

Earthquake 31-Aug-1968 10,000

Earthquake 10-Apr-1972 5,057

Earthquake 23-Jan-1909 5,000

Earthquake 1-May-1929 3,300

Earthquake 13-Dec-1957 3,000

Earthquake 6-May-1930 2,500

Disaster Date Affected

Drought 2000 37,000,000

Drought Jul-2001 25,000,000

Flood 10-Aug-2001 1,200,200

Flood Jul-1980 950,000

Earthquake 1-Jun-1990 710,000

Drought 1964 625,000

Flood 8-Feb-1993 484,728

Earthquake 7-Apr-1977 400,000

Earthquake 26-Dec-2003 267,628

Flood 12-Aug-2002 200,000

Created on: May-4-2005. - Data version: v04.05

Source:"EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database,

www.em-dat.net - Université catholique de Louvain - Brussels - Belgium"

National disaster management structure and relevant legislation

Since the early 90s and specially after the Manjil Earthquake in 1990,

considerable activities carried out by the Government of Iran toward

establishment of a suitable and adaptable disaster management system. Some

of the main regulatory framework and relevant legislation for national disaster

management in Iran could be found in the following documents:

- The 1979 constitution (revised in 1989): Governs the basic principles and

establishes the responsibilities of the Government.

- Law of Foundation of National Committee for Mitigation of Natural

Disaster Effects (NCNDR), 1991.

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- The decision of April 2003 approving the Rescue & Relief

Comprehensive Plan (Council of Minister’s Decree)

- Decisions of the “Expediency Council” in 2004 and 2005 defining the

basic policies for Disaster Mitigation and Prevention.

- Formulation of the “Integrated National disaster management Plan

(INDPM)”

- Establishment of the Headquarter Council of Disaster Management

headed by Vice President of Iran (2004)

- Decree of the Council of Ministers setting 9 specialized sub-committees,

April 12, 2003

- Act on the compensation of damages resulting from floods

- Enactment of building code under standard No. 2800 as obligatory for

construction companies and national institutions

- Earthquake resistant regulations for buildings

- Incorporation of technical and safety measures supervised by

municipalities and other executive organizations

On a National level, disaster risk management in Iran is under the overall

supervision of the Ministry of the Interior (MOI), as explained in the Law of

Foundation of National Committee for Mitigation of Natural Disaster Effects. The

responsibilities and functions related to natural disasters and other man-made

disasters, were formally assigned to this Ministry by virtue of the Budget Act of

the same year.

Two specialized bodies were created to provide support and operationalize the

disaster management activities: The Bureau for Research and Coordination of

Safety and Reconstruction Affairs (BRCRS), which has a rather broad mandate

that includes research; formulation of preparedness and mitigation plans;

collection, analysis and dissemination of related information; coordination of

relief, reconstruction and rehabilitation and it is encouraged to look for national

and international alliances to achieve its mandate.

In addition, the National Disaster Task Force (NDTF) was established as a

inter-organizational coordinating body, particularly for emergency relief

operations in the national territory. Emergency response across sectors is under

the responsibility of the appropriate ministries also coordinated by NDTF. The

manager of the NDTF is also the director of BRCRS.

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The national structure of the Ministry of Interior is replicated at the provincial

and local levels. The Governor General and his heads of department comprise

the provincial DTF, which coordinate disaster response and relief within the

province. Formal arrangements provide for neighbouring provinces to provide

support if needed.

In 1991 the Islamic Consultative Assembly or Majlis constituted a National

Committee for Natural Disaster Reduction (NCNDR), the execution of this law is

further detailed by the 12 April 2003 Council of Ministers’ Decree which has set

up 9 specialized sub-committees presided by the deputy ministers. It counts

on provincial committees presided over by the General Governors and a

coordination committee presided over by the Minister of the Interior.

The sub-committee for confronting dangers caused by earthquakes and

landslides, “Earthquake and landslide expert group”, established in 1993 under

the Ministry of Urban and Housing was formed as a branch of the NCNDR and

it is one of the most active in the country. Delegates from the Housing

Foundation, the International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and

Seismology IIEES, the Municipality and universities of Teheran, among others,

integrate it.

More recently, in 1998, the government adopted the National Plan on Natural

Disasters Prevention that contains policies, actions and programs with national,

regional and local focus and includes financial, educational and research

aspects in the field of disaster prevention. It has three main components:(1)

monitoring and early warning, (2) risk assessment, (3) mitigation and response.

There is an annual budget for disaster risk reduction, which is generally the

2.5% of the total annual budget of the country, 1.5% of this sum is allocated for

advocacy and damage reduction, a portion of this amount is also used for

emergency management2.

Tehran Disaster Management Organization

The Tehran Municipality is the only local Government entity in Iran that is

2 ISDR-WCDR, Disaster Reduction IR – Iran National Report, 2005

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though embedded in the national system, somewhat outside the main stream of

the disaster management system. In Tehran the Mayor is the official

Commander for disaster management and the City Council works as a

regulatory body, as long as they do not bypass and/or contradict national level

stipulations. All activities related to disaster mitigation and management in

Tehran should be managed at “Tehran Disaster Mitigation and Management

Centre (TDMMC)”. This centre has been established in 2003 by merging two

existing centre CEST (Centre for Earthquake and Environmental Studies of

Tehran) and CEMS (Centre for Emergency Management Secretariat).

The Tehran Master Plan on Emergency Management has been prepared during

the years of 2002-2004 using the prepared reports and documents at local level

and the results of JICA Study in Tehran. This is a planning and not a regulatory

reference document that propose a lot of projects that should be carried out in

Tehran to reduce the impacts of the earthquake.

The Headquarter of Disaster Management of Iran recently established an

implementation Council to evaluate this master plan and organize the activities

that should be carried out based on the proposed projects.

National land use management system and relevant legislation

Rapid population growth in Iran dramatically changed the composition of urban

and rural populations and resulted in accelerated urbanization. Between 1976

and 1996 urban population more than doubled, from 15.85 millions to 36.8

millions, while the rural population rose at somewhat slower rate, from 17.85

million to 23.24. In the same period, the number of cities and towns jumped

from 373 to 6163.

Significance of the city to the Nation

Tehran (also spelled Teheran) is situated at the foot of the towering Alborz

range and has a population of 9 million (14,000,000 in the whole metropolitan

area), is a large population center consisting of Tehran city itself and its

adjacent zone of influence), and a land area of 254 square milles (658 Km2). It

3 UN, Human Development Report of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1999

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is the capital of Iran and one of the major world cities, it is also the center of the

Tehran Province.

Following the national trends, the population of Tehran has had a boom in the

last decades (1991 census reported 6.04 million, while the 1996 census 6.76

million and by year 2000 estimates were close to seven million). As a result of

which urban development has not been smooth. In recent years the municipality

of Tehran has taken great measures to increase the number of recreational

facilities, including parks, stadiums, theatres, etc.

According to 1996 statistics, the average population density in Tehran is about

125 persons/hectar and it could be roughly estimated that about 20% is

currently living under the poverty line, poor being defined as those that have an

income lower than 250 USD per month.

More than half of the country's industry is based there. Industries include the

manufacturing of cars, electronics and electrical equipment, weaponry, textiles,

sugar, cement and chemical products. It is also a leading center for the sale of

carpets and furniture and incorporates an oil refinery nearby. Only three per

cent of the city’s economy accounts for the primary sector (agricultere etc), 31%

relates to the secondary sector (manufacturing) and finaly the 66% accounts for

the terciary sector (services and utilities).

Tehran has an immense network of highways unparalleled in western Asia. It is

also the hub of the country's railway network. The city has numerous large

museums, art centers, palace complexes and cultural centers, showing that it is

the most important political, economical and social centre of the county.

Besides Persians there are Azeri, Armenian, Jewish and Afghani communities

in Tehran. Persian-speakers constitute 98.3 percent of Tehran's residents.

Geographical setting of the City

The province of Tehran has over 12,000,000 inhabitants and is Iran’s most

densely populated region. Approximately 84.15% reside in urban areas and

15.85% in rural areas of the province. The highest point of the province is

Damavand peak at an attitude of 5,678 m, and the lowest point of the province

being the plains of Varamin, 790 m above sea level. The largest rivers of this

province are Karaj and Jajrud. The climate of Tehran province in the southern

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areas is warm and dry, but in the mountain vicinity is cold and semi-humid, and

in the higher regions is cold with long winters.

Covering an area of 1500 Km2, Tehran is situated in the north-central part of

Iran, on the slope of the Alborz Mountain, it is about 1200 meters above sea

level and enjoys a rather mild climate with moderate winters and hot summers.

Average annual rainfall is approximately 400 mm, the maximum being during

the winter season.

2 Inter-City Linkages

Internal division of the City

Teheran is divided

into 22 metropolitan

districts; the

population is

concentrated in the

southern part of the

city, as shown in

this graph in darker

red that represents

600-800 inhabitants

per hectare.

The organization chart of all 22 metropolitan districts are the same and similar

to Tehran Municipality. Each of them has a district Mayor and relevant deputies.

Governance/management style

Tehran Municipality has the main role in management of the city, providing the

basic urban services in Tehran. In addition, the Municipality governing all the

construction and urban development inside the city. Of course the security and

traffic control are out of the responsibility of the municipality, but there are some

kinds of co-ordinations between these organizations. The same situation is true

for the responsible companies that provide the public services such as water,

gas, electricity, telephone, etc.

Figure 1

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Formal arrangements

Tehran City Council selects the Tehran mayor. The head of Tehran Disaster

Mitigation and Management Center (TDMMC) falls directly under the

supervision and responsibility of the Mayor of Tehran. TDMMC has 22 offices in

Tehran districts that are responsible to disaster management in their territories.

All emergency situation and activities in these districts should be reported to

TDMMC to be considered more deeply if necessary.

Relevant legislation/regulations

There are two principal sources for understanding the Tehran specific

regulatory framework and related organizational set-up for disaster

management including: 1- Tehran Comprehensive emergency Management

Plan (TCEMP) that is an emergency response plan (ERP), organizes 24

organizations under the umbrella of 22 committees to address an emergency

situation that may arise within the Tehran Municipality.

2- Tehran Mayor’s Decrees of May 2003 that establishes in formal terms the

Tehran Disaster Mitigation and management Centre (TDMMC). This is a

fundamental document, since it establishes TDMMC as the entity responsible

for disaster management, including emergency response, in the Tehran

Municipality and it defines the mandate and individual functions to be carried

out by TDMMC. It defines 21 individual articles and one explanatory footnote.

Based on this document, TDMMC functions can be grouped into three distinctly

different categories as:

- Coordination function, including supervisory authority and power over

other entities of the Municipality and or national level line ministries.

- Direct formulation and preparation functions

- Direct executive function, such as the case for the preparation, conduct

and evaluation of drill exercises and coordination among the 24

committees that are involved in the preparation of the individual

emergency response plans.

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3 Land Use Management

Relevant legislation

The city’s first master plan was adopted in 1970 but never implemented4.

According to Fereshteh Bekhrad a New York architect and designer who

participated in the project, the primary objective of the plan was to relieve

problems in the city, which had no zoning regulations to control land use or

density. This plan would have decentralized the city by creating 10 new regional

centers, each serving 500,000 people. Separated by landscaped open spaces,

each community center would have had its own commercial, employment and

industrial complexes. The plan that was adopted later created 22 different city

sections.

The most important Master Plan for Tehran was prepared by ATEK Consulting

Engineers in 1991. This master Plan was the main reference for development in

Tehran for several years. In this plan there was no considerable aspects for

disaster management.

Recently the Tehran Municipality is preparing new Master and comprehensive

plans for Tehran. One of the main parts of these plans is related to the natural

disasters including Earthquake and Flood.

The consultant for the earthquake study is International Institute of Earthquake

Engineering and Seismology (IIEES). In this study all available information and

reports related to earthquake vulnerability of Tehran have been collected and

analyzed and the current situation in disaster management for a potential

earthquake has been explained in details.

Although currently there is no serious regulations that incorporates hazards into

land use and planning processes, but the municipality would consider the

results of IIEES project to prepare some regulations to cope with issues related

to land use and urban planning and development.

4 Urschell Donna, The Style of Tehran: Architectural History Mirrors Life in the Iranian Capital , August

2004

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Responsible agents and their relationship

Land use regulations and development are a function of both, the national

government and the city municipality. There are basic regulations prepared by

the national government that should be applied in the entire country, but most

laws and regulations are provided at the local level, which are applicable only in

Tehran.

Effectiveness of current arrangements

The Ministry of the Interior designates the Governor of Tehran, but the Mayor is

elected by the City Council. Nearly all of the affairs related to Tehran will be

planned and achieved by the Mayor and its council, the role of the Governor is

to control that these laws do not conflict with the national rules and regulations.

4 Vulnerability Issues

Tehran Fault

Figure 2. Faulting systems near Tehran

Mosha Fault

Rey Fault

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Hazards

Tehran is located at the southern foot of the Alborz Mountains, which extend to

the Alps-Himalaya orogenic zone. A large fault is located in this mountain range

and there are several fault lines in the plains south of the city of Tehran. This

city, virtually surrounded by faults, has suffered large earthquake disasters in

cycles of approximately every 150 years. Since there have not been any large

earthquakes in Tehran in the past 170 years, local seismologists are

considering the possibility of a large earthquake in Tehran in the near future5.

At the same time, Tehran has experienced the highest urbanization process of

any city in Iran in the recent years. Large influx of people into Teheran took

place after the Iranian Revolution in 1979.

The North Tehran and Mosha faults situated towards the northern side of

Greater Teheran and the Ray Fault on the southern limits of the city have the

potential to generate MW = 7.2 and 6.7 respectively, which according to the

earthquake scenarios developed under the JICA-CEST project “Study on the

Seismic Microzoning of the Greater Tehran Area”, 1999-2000, could produce a

death toll of 120.000 to 380.000 if any of the two faults were to move, basically

due to the vulnerability of existing structures to seismic loads.

At-risk groups

The population living in the southern part of the city shows in general lower

levels of instruction, younger and poorer population, higher population densities

and more vulnerable structures, when compared to those social groups living in

the central and northern portions of the city. The central districts have a richest

cultural heritage, a number of cultural buildings are located in this part of the city

and also day-time population can be significantly increased due to the

concentration of public buildings. Higher income groups, higher literary rates

and newer structures, characterize the northern districts.

Having this perspective in mind, southern and central districts seem to be the

most vulnerable at least to earthquakes. Interestingly, a recent study carried

5 JICA, FRONTIER, March 2001

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out by TDMMC-JICA in relationship with the Earthquake Disaster Management

Plan show that those social groups living in the south are more likely to promote

community based activities and show stronger willingness to provide each other

assistance and support in case of a sever emergency or disaster.

At-risk locations

Local and international research groups have extensively recognized Tehran’s

vulnerability to earthquakes. Who agree on the fact that there is a need for the

city to put in place an overall architectural policy that takes into account the

environmental conditions and the fact that Tehran is located on a major fault

line.

Through the above-mentioned studies, the city counts on district-wise

earthquake vulnerability assessment, based on three main criteria: building

damage index, that takes into account the structural condition of the structures;

a secondary damage index to incorporate expected damage to hazardous

facilities such the gas pipeline and the electric power system; finally an

evacuation resource index that allows focusing on open spaces and other

evacuation alternatives in the city.

They have concurred that a strong earthquake could severely affect Tehran.

Although many buildings could withstand the violent tremors, low-cost

residential buildings constructed three to five stories high during the 1970s

could collapse; special consideration was given to the large number of masonry

buildings given their low seismic resistant capacity. The narrow streets of many

neighborhoods would compound the catastrophe; there are hardly any parks

that could be utilized as shelter places, especially in the southeastern part of the

city. Emergency crews would not be able to reach certain areas in time to save

victims.

The following graphs, taken from the Tehran Microzonation Study6, show the

highest concentration of buildings in Greater Tehran; according to municipal

6 CEST-JICA, The study on seismic microzoning of the Greater Tehran area in the IRI,

September 2000

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statistics, 66% of the building stock correspond to weak or unreinforced

masonry (aprox. 620,00 units of a total of 950,000), which is considered one of

the poorest construction systems to withstand lateral forces i.e. earthquake

induced forces, 27% is steel construction and 4% reinforced concrete.

Approximately 90% of all buildings are residential. The expected damages in

those buildings due to a postulated earthquake of Magnitude of 6.8 with

epicenter on the Ray Fault in also shown on figure 3. As expected, most severe

damages appear to be located on the southern part of the city.

Inappropriate appraisal system and lack of strict enforcement mechanisms of

the seismic standards and codes, greatly contribute to the continued increase of

the physical vulnerability of the city. The municipality issues construction

permits and construction completion certificates; compliance is revised only

from the architectural perspective and the city planning regulations observance.

City policies on vulnerability alleviation

With an estimated population of close to eight million, it is estimated that

380,000 will lose their lives in a future major earthquake. Earthquake

engineering research has been conducted in Iran on a very high level and with

extremely high quality. However, the reality is that concrete measures for

earthquake-resistant structures and the disaster prevention administration for

damage deterrence have not been efficient.

The city is considering a massive retrofitting and/or strengthen program for

some public and private buildings through appropriate programs and also

setting some procedures to assure building code compliance for new

constructions in Tehran.

Building distribution, red

and dark-yellow with

highest concentrations

Damaged buildings, Ray

Fault Eq., red and dark

yellow are heaviest

Figure 3. Locations at risk due to building vulnerability

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5 Disaster Risk Management Arrangements

Functional arrangements7

The municipality of Tehran established in 2003 the “Teheran Disaster Mitigation

and Management Center” (TDMMC) by reorganizing existing bodies created

after two major disasters impacted the city. TDMMC falls under the direct

control and guidance of the city’s mayor. Its mandate includes mitigation,

preparedness, emergency response, and reconstruction and rehabilitation

activities.

Currently, DRM vision is still very focused on the response side, Tehran city

counts on a Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan -TCEMP- that

organizes 24 central, local government and NGOs under 22 committees with

three main functions: relief and rescue management, settlement management

and logistics management. Major concerns in this plan are the strengthening of

TDMMC and the Municipal’s Fire Brigade, the improvement of the emergency

communications system, setting an emergency operation center and a disaster

management information system on the line of post event activities.

Tehran as the capital city, has gained a special condition that allows the Mayor

to act as the commander in chief of the Tehran disaster management system

and the City Council as a regulatory body as long as their decisions do not

contradict national regulations.

Recently, the preparation of a Master Plan for Urban Seismic Disaster

Prevention and Management in Tehran has just been completed (August 2004)

by the TDMMC with the support of the Government of Japan through the Japan

International Coordination Agency (JICA). Based on a previous study that

reproduces three different damage earthquake scenarios, the plan provides

concrete mitigation options to significantly reduce the number of casualties and

damaged buildings from the most severe case, an earthquake on the Ray Fault.

It also incorporates a disaster mitigation policy section that includes education,

7 TDMMC-JICA, The comprehensive master plan study on urban seismic disaster prevention

and management for the Greater Tehran are in the Islamic Republic of Iran, August, 2004

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Page 17

coordination capabilities and institutional strengthening; community based

activities for disaster preparedness, the reformulation of an emergency

response plan for the city and suggested implementation procedures for the

master plan to be completed by year 2015.

Risk Assessment

Tehran, the capital of Iran is located in one of the world's high potential

earthquake zones. Several studies are available about risk assessment in

Tehran such as Geotechnical Microzonation carried out by IIEES, or JICA

microzoning maps. In addition some activities carried out to formulate disaster

prevention and management in Tehran that one of them is the Master Plan that

is prepared by JICA-TDMMC in 2005.

Based on this study, it is expected that ample earthquake disaster measures

will be implemented, to enhance disaster prevention capabilities, and to

minimize and control disasters throughout the Greater Tehran Area including

the city's 22 districts and its surrounding areas.

Risk Communication

Despite the occurrence of several earthquakes in the Tehran region, the

community at large does not show in the overall very high levels of awareness.

Most important sources for public information are the newspapers, radio, TV,

opinion programs and Public and Private sectors participation.

The week of disaster mitigation awareness was adopted in the month of

October, as an alternative to keep the community informed, it also motivates

their participation on risk reduction activities.

Formal education on DRM is promoted through specialized programs at the

university and research institutes such as the International Institute of

Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES) and sustained efforts to

introduce these aspects in the school curricula are taken.

3CD City Profiles Series - Current Working Document- Tehran-Iran

Page 18

6 Disaster Risk Management Vision

The new and integral disaster management master plan, which is on its initial

phase of implementation explicitly, spells its vision: “To establish a safe and

secure urban environment against a potential earthquake in the city”.

7 Issues

Rapid urbanization and the industrialization associated with it have become the

leading threats to the environment in Iran. This development has harmed the

environment in a number of ways, particularly in large cities, such as the capital

Tehran. These adverse effects have affected the quality of living of the

population particularly in areas related to air and water quality, increase of

informal human settlements, noise levels, energy consumption, traffic and

transportation problems, among others8.

Natural disasters remain a major threat and a constant hazard to development

and environmental sustainability, as witnessed by the catastrophic earthquake

in Bam in December 2003. In this context, the need to further strengthen

national capacities in disaster risk prevention and management, to raise

awareness among decision-makers in key development sectors of disaster risk

management issues, and to adopt multi-disciplinary approaches to assessing

and managing disaster risk has become urgent

8 UNDP, Human Development Report of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1999

3CD City Profiles Series - Current Working Document- Tehran-Iran

Page 19

8 References

Primary data source:

Results of the questionnaire survey of disaster risk management practices

conducted by the 3cd Program between, kindly prepared by Prof. Mohsen

Ghafori Ashtiani and Kambod Amini Hosseini from the International Institute of

Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, IIEES, from Tehran-Iran.

______________________________

1. ISNDR, National Report of the Islamic Republic of Iran, January 2005

2. UNDP, Islamic Republic of Iran Human Development Report, 1999

3. UNDP, Islamic Republic of Iran Human Development Report, 2004

4. JICA, CEST, “The study on Seismic Microzoning of the Greater Tehran Area

in the Islamic Republic of Iran”, Draft Final Report, September 2000

5. EERI, Microzonation of the Greater Tehran, www.eeri.go.jp

6. TDMMC-JICA, “The comprehensive master plan study on urban seismic

disaster prevention and management for the Greater Tehran are in the

Islamic Republic of Iran”, August, 2004

7. JICA, Frontier Magazine, March 2001

8. Urschell Donna, The Style of Tehran: Architectural History Mirrors Life in the

Iranian Capital , August 2004

9. EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database, www.emdat.

net - Université catholique de Louvain - Brussels - Belgium

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با سلام

محسن مردعلی هستم فوق لیسانس مدیریت خدمات بهداشتی و درمانی از دانشژاه علوم پزشکی تهران

امیدوارم با ارائه مطالب مفید در این زمینه مفید و مثمر ثمر واقع شوم

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محسن مردعلی

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